The purpose of this presentation is twofold: First, it critically analyzes UNESCO’s Education for All (EFA) and the World Bank’s Learning for All (LFA), two significant education discourses by two prominent international actors in the governance of education worldwide.
In this connection, it is argued: (a) that EFA and LFA are suffused with the “cognitive hypothesis syndrome (CHS)” (Tough,2013), in the sense that they emphasize “cognitive skills” or “tools and habits of the mind”, mainly for instrumental purposes, viz. elimination of poverty, equity and sustainable economic development, and development of measurable skills of literacy and numeracy and (b) that these inter- national discourses underemphasize “non-cognitive skills” or “tools and habits of the heart”—often called “soft skills”-- viz. aesthetic knowledge, ethical dispositions and civic virtues, which are associated with an individual’s personality and character. It will be argued that these international discourses underemphasize what I would call “Paideia or education of the soul”, a quintessential character trait of being a homo civilis/ homo humanus type of “citizen person” and afortiori for a “flourishing life”, in Aristotle’s famous terminology, for eudaimonia (happy, good life).
Andreas M. Kazamias